The capital of Kermanshahan Province, at an altitude of 1, 630 m above sea level, Kermanshah is 525 km to the southwest of Tehran. It can be reached either by air or via Hamadan (190 km), partly on a highway and partly on a first class national asphalt road.
Being a populous city of 631,199 inhabitants, mainly Kurds, Kermanshah stands, like Hamadan, on the great highway that connected Baghdad and the West with Iranian Plateau. The town�s situation is highly picturesque, and it is one of the liveliest market centers of the province, where you will meet a large number of Kurds and mountain peasants once famous as warriors. These Kurds still speak their own language among themselves and remain faithful to their testamentary traditions: the men wear large turbans on their heads and black dungarees tight at the waist and at the ankles. The women wear trousers and bright-colored scarves and sometimes brocade bodices, but they are mostly changing into an urban type of dress, particularly in towns.
First built on a site a few km from the present town, it probably dates from the 4th century AD. Its vulnerable position has always rendered it liable to incursions, and it was in turn captured by the Arabs in 649 AD, the Buyids in the 10th century, soon after by the Seljuk, and then sacked by Mongols in the early 13th century. After several centuries of relative peace and prosperity, its strategic position on the road to Baghdad brought trouble in the form of very heavy Iraqi missile and bomb attacks during the Iraqi war against Iran.
Modern Kermanshah is an important agricultural and a burgeoning industrial center. In the surrounding country fruit of many kinds is grown; another local product is sugar-beet. Carpet-weaving and manufacture of gives (canvas covered shoes like the Spanish alpargata in appearance) have long been carried on in the town. Since the construction of an oil refinery on the banks of Qara Su River in 1935, motor spirit and other petroleum products have been processed there for consumption in northern and north-western Iran.
However, the present Kermanshah does not seem to be of any great interest, especially for a foreign visitor. And although it is not, relatively speaking, an old town, there are some very ancient remains in its neighborhood, which suffice to attract the attention of the interested tourist. It has a beautiful setting, framed by permanently snow-clad mountains. Kermanshah is best avoided in winter, but the climate is very pleasant for most of the rest of the year.
This is a traditional applied art in nomadic Kermanshah areas which has been in this province from a long time ago and its age is as much as Hand weaving. In the past, different wool covers and mats even horse saddles were made of felt. At present, it is used in felt hat, vest and Faraji. Colorful patterns of the felt which are still beautiful in black floors of tents and on the shoulder of a shepherd. Mat felts of the area are in two colors of black and white and of course, green, red, orange and purple are also added in white background for decoration. Common patterns on different Kermanshah of felts include sword and pistol, rainbow, bergamot flower, ax, tree and sparrow, Kallehghochi, lily, goat, hen, flower, stairs, Jagheshahi etc.
Givekeshi is one of craft industries in Kermanshah which has a great history. Locally it is also called Kelash. Mountainous areas and impassable roads made people use shoes as a soft, light, comfortable and resistant sleeper. Centers of making shoe are Paveh, Harsin and Kermanshah. It is formed of two parts of floor and surface. Floor part is mostly rubber and plastic but surface (upper) part is made of string. Before the formation of the rubber industry, shoemakers used buffalo skin to prepare lower
part of the shoe and the surface was made of string or silk which was mainly worn by rich people. With the advent of the rubber industry, workers and farmers were provided with rubber. The second type titled Kelash Orami which is known as �Doom�. The lower part of the shoe is gained by smashing cloth and they are connected to each other with the dry intestine of animals which is called Titeh. It is different with the shoe of Kermanshah in terms of form and plan. The most important shoe weaving products include slippers, high heels, ribbed cotton summer, closed back, shoe type, towel form, beds, Kaiser, Javey, net and Melki.
This includes a mat with nearly 150 cm width on which different patterns are established by colorful wool strings. It is used to help protect people and sometimes it is used to divide internal parts of tents into various sections.
This art has had a special effect in this province and great graves have been active in this profession. Master Ali Akbar Einol-Ghazaei is the last person who was professional in his job in this city and he taught this art to a young man from Kermanshah to revive it. Inspired by historical works during Achaemenes and Sassanid and nature of the area he created wonderful art with a delicacy which has international buyers.
At present, there are some workshops in Kerend-e-Gharb which deal with metal devices and working tools. Industrialists in this city have been famous in making working and hunting tools such as a knife, sugar cutter, saddle tools, lock and key. Unluckily at present, this tool and the industry are being ruined. They are mostly devastated except some traditional workshops. The active workshops prepare home and environment appliances. In addition to Kerend-e-Gharb there are some smithy workshops in Kermanshah which produce tools for planting and farming.
Moj and in local term is called Rakhtekhab-pich which is made of pure wool and it is mostly for meeting needs of local people and those relatives who order it. It is a home art which is still common in Ouramaant area. Rainbow waves in Ouramanat and Javanroud have special a fame. In Javanroud the industry has a workshop so that some people are still working with such tools. Today Moj is still used so that in some cases it can be used instead of blanket, mat, curtain and even big Boghche. Prayer carpet is another material in this workshop. It is small with 60 x 110 centimeters. The color and pattern are influenced by its religious aspect and despite Moj which has happy colors, it is made of black, white and brown colors. The most important designs are Keshkouli, tile, black and white, red bed, Bermali, chess model. They are also able to weave orders of those who order.
This is one of the handmade industries of Kermanshah and still there are several active textiles in Kermanshah which weave string curtains. The machine used for wave-weaving is also used for weaving curtain.
This is another handicraft in Kermanshah which has been common among villager`s family and nomads. It is used as a warm overcoat. It is provided for brides as a dowry by villager`s family. And they have been kept and maintained as a valuable gift for many years. The basic material is wool and the texture is like Kilim. But Kilim is made of four kinds of woods and after sewing they are connected. In Oraman and Salaas areas, women weave Kilims with different patterns and fine materials which are unique.
From many years ago this has been common among villagers of Kermanshah as the secondary valuable activity which is used by themselves and it has local and native patterns. Recognized local patterns have a name of certain villages such as patterns of Hossein Abadi, Akbar Abadi and Keivani. Today it is still open in most villages of Songhor and in villages such as Sahneh, Kangavar, Dinavar and Bistoun. Among nomads in the western area of Kermanshah especially Salaas Babajani Kilim-weaving is not the main industry but carpet is made along with the
Kilim-weaving and other handmade models. The term Flower or Gol in Persian is used as a pattern in Kilim-weaving culture of Kermanshah. In Gol-Akbar Abadi and Gol-Toranji, by Gol we mean pattern of flower on the carpet. The patterns known in Kilim-weaving in this area include Dargol, Bazoubandi, Samavari, Abdollahi, Akbar Abadi, Kunani and Hossein Abadi each of which includes smaller patterns.
Traditional Market (Bazaar)
Kermanshah Bazaar is regarded the main part of the city which has an appropriate combination of manufacturing, trading, social, cultural and religious activities. It is integrated with all its function which is indeed the main structure of Kermanshah. Great Bazaar of the city is part of an old treasure indicating history, diaries and thoughts of the city aside from its appropriate architecture.
Bazaar elements and spaces
A) Rasteh: Each Bazaar has one main direction and several secondary Rasteh which are called halls as well. Sometimes they are separated by two gates. Safe makers and Bazankhane Bazaars are separated from each other by two gates. Main Rasteh of Kermanshah leads from Chaghasorkh Gate to Seyyed jome bridge gate. Rastehs are named as follows in terms of business profession and artisan, city, merchant`s religion and function:
Mercer`s Bazaar in the western corner of Modarres ST, along with safe maker`s Bazaar.
Safe-maker`s Bazaar in western corner of Modarres ST, down the Bonkdarha Bazaar
Bonkdarha Bazaar in eastern corner of Jalili ST, down the Blacksmith Bazaar
Blacksmith Bazaar in eastern corner of Jalili ST right before Bonkdarha Bazaar
Goldsmith Bazaar in western corner of Modarres ST
Houri-Abaad Bazaar in eastern corner of Modarres ST, down the Goldsmith Bazaar
Cookie maker Bazaar in eastern corner of Modarres ST, across from Mercer Bazaar
Yin-maker Bazaar in eastern corner of Modarres ST, near cookie maker Bazaar
Sahafha Bazaar northern corner of Chaharsough
Coppersmith Bazaar western corner of Chaharsough
Sarajha Bazaar separated from Coppersmith Bazaar
Alaafkhaneh Bazaar after Turk Bazaar
Turk Bazaar several blocks after Serajha Bazaar
Kalimiha Bazaar in center of Mercer Bazaar
Chaal Hassan khaan Bazaar adjacent to Isfahan gate and Seyyed jome bridge gate, down the eastern front in grand Bazaar
Toupkhaneh Bazaar adjacent to Chaghasorkh, down the western front of grand Bazaar
B) Daland: it is a communicating space which is a link between outer space and internal space of structure and it is usually in form of an alley or small and secondary Rasteh which from one side leads to another Rasteh and from another side it leads to one Saraa or Karvansara. Vakil-O-Doleh in Kermanshah Bazaar is on one hand related to Serajha Bazaar and on the other hand to Vakil-O-Doleh Saraa.
C) Hojreh or store: Hojreh is located in Kermanshah Bazaar are in fact corridor on the floor in which goods are sold, while Hojreh in upper floors were mostly used as working office or office space of Trading House and they made storages under Hojreh which were upper than crossing level.
D) Chaharsough: in the intersection of Coppersmith Bazaar, Serajha, Sahafha and Goldsmith Bazaars there is a quadrilateral whose dome has many internal decorations.
E) Gheisarieh: in safe maker Bazaar, Gehisarieh Emadol-Al-Dolleh was made which is working place of delicate industrialists such as mercers, Alaghebandan, needle sewers, Goharian and jobs like this which are delicate.
F) Timcheh: Karvansaraa of a covered small Saraa which is suitable for distributing valuable goods such as carpet. Timche Seyyed Esmaeil in Alafkhane Bazaar is, in fact, Kermanshah Bazaar Timcheh.
G) Saraa and Karvansaraa (Khaan): it is regarded the most significant interior architecture space in Kermanshah Bazaar which can be accessed through main Rasteha. The reason behind the foundation of Saraa was the limited length of the Bazaars and traffic of Karvanha in the city. Saraye Vakil-aldoleh, new Saraa, date-selling saraa and Esfahaniha Saraa are the ones that are still left behind.
H) Khaanbaaz: a vast space behind Karvansaraha or
Saraa which is, in fact, a storage for goods which are carried by animals or carts and they are not allowed to enter Bazaar. The goods are transferred to their location after discharging in these Khanbaar through Rasteh.
I) There was one urban square inside, near or along key Bazaars in which Rooz and cyclical Bazaars were established. The squares were used in various cultural, religious, political and sports dimensions in addition to business. Urban Sarbazkhaneh square, Sabzeh-meidan and Allafkhaneh were squares in the Bazaar which were devastated during urban development.
J) Bazarcheh (small Bazaar): it is not regarded interior space of Bazaar and there are small Bazaars with several stores in two sides of one corridor which are protected with a ceiling. They were established to provide daily needs of local people in form of a small local Bazaar. Jolokhaan Bazaar in the western corner of Modarres ST in Feizabaad neighborhood is one of these small Bazaars.
K) Gozaar: these are uncovered Bazarcheh which have little stores and are less active. Chenani Gozar is one of these examples.
L)Mosques and Takaya: some mosques were established in the main Rasteh in terms of the magnitude of Bazaars. Some of them are Masjid-jame, Emadol-Al-Dolleh, Feiz-Mahdavi and Bonkdarha.
M)Coffeehouses: they are among public spaces of each Bazaar and Bazarcheh. They are not significant like the past; however, they are an inevitable place for a gathering of those working in the Bazaar.
N) Different types of servicing spaces: in each main Bazaar and in terms of size, magnitude and size of business transactions, there were some service spaces such as water stock, Saghakhaneh, Shotorkhaan, Barfandaaz which provided necessary requirements.
Traditional cookies in Kermanshah Province
With its climate, geography and special plant protection, such as fertile farms, rich valleys and heights covered with forest, Kermanshah province is one of the best and unique areas in which Iranian families are living. There is too much rainfall in this area which significantly contributes to the growth of various plants, fruits and key foods. It also plays a key role in varied and unique diets of people of this area.
The province is located in an area with forest protection which has valleys and pastures and there are various plants and fruits such as oak, wild pistachio, peanut, wild cranberry, blackberry, walnut, and etc. This is somehow associated with making different foods and local and traditional cookies. Among traditional cookies available in diets of people in this province there are Kalaneh bread, Borsagh bread, Ghavout, chips, date bread, rice bread, Kaak, Bejie cookies and sugar cookie.
Traditional foods of Kermanshah province
The most famous foods of the city are the barbecued rib, Khoresh-khalaal, Ash-abbasali, Holou kebab Kermanshahi, apple rice and Tarkhineh soup.
Taq-e Bostan is a series of large bas-reliefs in rocks pertaining to the Sassanid era. It is located five kilometers from Kermanshah in the west of Iran. It is in the heart of Zagros Mountain Range, where it has endured natural phenomena such as wind and rainfall for 1,700 years.
The carvings, some of the finest and best-preserved examples of Persian Sassanid era sculptures, include images of the investiture ceremonies of Ardeshir II and Shapur III.
As in other Sassanid symbols, Taq-e Bostan and its bas-reliefs highlight the power, religious tendencies, glory, honor, the vastness of the court, games and fighting spirit, festivities and joy of the Sassanid period.
Sassanid kings chose a beautiful setting for their bas-reliefs along the Silk Road � an ancient caravan route. The reliefs are adjacent to a sacred spring that pours into a large pool at the base of a mountain cliff.
Taq-e Bostan and its bas-reliefs comprise two big and small arches. They illustrate the crowning ceremonies of Ardeshir I and his son, Shapur I, Shapur II and Khosrow II. They also depict the hunting scenes of Khosrow II.
The first Taq-e Bostan relief, and apparently the o
ldest, is a bas-relief in rock measuring 4.07 meters wide and 3.9 meters high. It includes the figures of four people with swords, helmets, and lotus. The figure standing to the right dons a serrated crown. He has turned to the middle figure and holds out a ribbon-decked royal ring. The middle figure wears a helmet. Behind the middle figure, another figure stands with a halo of light around his head.
Researchers have long debated the identities of the figures in this bas-relief, although most agreed on the identity of the fallen figure ― Artabanus IV, the last Parthian king whose rule terminated in 226 CE. Today, it is believed that the figures represent Ardeshir I and his son Shapur I, stepping over the dead body of Artabanus IV, delighted and intoxicated with the victory over their enemy.
This bas-relief depicts the demise of the Parthian dynasty, where Artabanus's figure has fallen under the feet of new rules.
The smaller arch bears two inscriptions in Pahlavi script and carvings of Shapur II, or Shapur the Great, and his son Shapur III facing each other. The figures of the two kings have been carved in silhouette and each figure stands 2.97 meters tall. Shapur II is on the right and Shapur III is on the left with each figure's hands placed on a long straight sword pointing downwards. The right hand is holding the grip while the left rests on the sheath. Both figures wear loose trousers, necklaces, curled hair, and a pointed beard ending in a ring.
The smaller cave within the arch's vestibule measures 6 x 5 x 3.6 meters. It was believed to have been built during the reign of Shapur III. Some assess the date of its completion at 385 CE. The Pahlavi inscriptions clearly introduce the two figures. The translation of the text of Shapur II and Shapur III respectively reads: This is the figure of the good worshiper, Shapur, the king of Iran and Aniran (non-Iran). Son of the good worshipper of God, Hormizd, the king of Iran and Aniran, divine race, grandson of Nersi, the king of kings.
One of the most impressive reliefs inside the largest grotto is the gigantic equestrian figure of the Sassanid King Khosrow II (591-628 CE) mounted on his favorite horse, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor.
The arch rests on two columns that bear delicately carved patterns showing the tree of life or the sacred tree. Above the arch and located on two opposite sides are figures of two-winged angles with diadems. Around the outer layer of the arch, a conspicuous margin has been carved, jagged with flower patterns. The equestrian relief panel is 4.25 meters high.
There are two hunting scenes on each side of the grotto. One scene depicts the imperial boar hunt, and the other scene shows the king stalking deer. Five elephants flush out the fleeing boars from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand.
In the next scene, another boat carries female harpists and shows that the king has killed two large boars. The next boat shows the king standing with a semicircular halo around his head and a loose bow in his hand, meaning that the hunt is over. Under this picture, elephants are retrieving the game with their trunks and putting them on their backs. Each hunting relief measures approximately six meters wide and 4.3 meters tall.
The upper relief shows the 19th century Qajar King Fath Ali Shah holding a court session. The depiction was so poorly done that in an effort to mask its inferior quality, the color was added to it. The new addition and poor workmanship were even criticized by later Qajar King, Nasereddin Shah.
The beauty and authenticity of Taq-e-Bostan site have been spoilt by unwarranted additions. Throughout history, Taq-e-Bostan has had a strange attraction for vandals. One of the vandals has etched the name of the former Dutch footballer Ruud Gullit on the underside of the larger arch.
Moreover, tectonic movements of the earth have caused some cracks to appear in Taq-e Bostan, particularly on its ceiling. These cracks are getting wider due to water seeping through the stones.
A few kilometers from the city of Kermanshah, the capital of Kermanshah province, stands a mountain which bears traces of Ancient Persia. A collection of huge rock reliefs and inscriptions and the gigantic statue of Hercules are all witnesses of the ancient Persian glory and years of civilization.
Bisotun Mountain is located 30 kilometers to the northeast of Kermanshah along ten ancient trade routes linking the Persian high plateau to Mesopotamia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the Median, Achaemenid, Sassanid, and Ilkhanid dynastic periods.
On the rocks of the famous Bisotun mountain, about 50 meters above the ground, there are some pictures and inscriptions denoted to Darius the Great, the Achaemenid king (550 - 486 BC), which still remain intact. The Achaemenid King later issued an order in the consequence of a series of clashes and wars, according to which the details of his conquests and administration had to be left in trust on the rocks.
A summary of the inscriptions is as follows:
Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Persian Empire, was killed while going to campaign in Egypt. Cyrus was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II who, in order to accomplish his father's goal, headed toward Egypt. But before he left he secretly killed his brother Bardya for fear. Bardya would claim the throne in his (Cambyses') absence.
The Bisotun inscription comes in three prevalent languages of the time namely Persian, Elamite and Babylonian. In this demonstration, Darius the Great stands before 9 captives whose hands have been cuffed placing his left foot on the chest of Keommana who is lying on the ground with a sword in his hand.
Carleton Coon, who carried out some excavations in a cave in the area in 1949, discovered that there is some evidence of highly developed industry in the area dating back to the Middle Paleolithic era, which indicate that the settlement of human beings in Bisotun goes back to long before the Achaemenids came in power in Ancient Persia and it was inhabited during the prehistoric period even and the Wurm glaciations (dated less than 100,000 years ago).
The Bisotun sculptures are some of the most important historical evidence, which was created in 480 BC, during the reign of Darius the Great. There are a lot of stories about this archeology site in the history. The first historical mention of the inscription is by the Greek Ctesias of Cnidus, who noted its existence sometime around 400 BC, and mentioned that a well and a garden beneath the inscription were dedicated by Queen Semiramis of Babylon to Zeus (the Greek analog of Ahura Mazda).
The statue of Hercules in Bisotun is among the rare Greek relics belonging to the period when the successors of Alexander of Macedonia ruled in Iran. The statue was discovered in 1957. It was unearthed during construction operation of the new Hamedan-Kermanshah road. The stonework, attached to the rocks by the foot of the mountain, reveals a nude man who is stretching down on his left side on a lion figure under tree shade, and his left hand is on the lion's head and his foot is on his back. The man holds a bowl in his left hand which is 14 centimeters in diameter and 8.5 centimeters in depth. His right hand is on his right foot while his left foot is relying on the other. A tablet and some carvings could be seen behind the statue. The tablet is in Old Greek scripture in seven lines and is 33 by 43 centimeters. The general appearance of the tablet resembles that of Greek temples. The carvings by the tablet show a tree on the branch of which a bow, its two ends resembling the peak of a duck, is stretched. A quiver full of arrows is also hanging from the tree. By the tree, a cylinder shaped knotted club could be seen.
According to the tablet, the date of the statue goes back to the time when Mehrdad I, from the Parthian dynasty (248 BC - 224 AD) was ruling in Iran and had already passed half of his ruling term.
On the tablet it is writte
n: "In the year 164, in the month of Pandmoi of Hercules the shining conqueror, this ceremony was held by Hiakin Tous, son of Ian Tiakhous on the occasion of saving of Kal Amen, the chief commander."
On the roadside there are Achaemenid (550-330 BC) inscriptions and reliefs carved in Bisotun cliff, which attracts the attention of tourists and passengers to the art and delicacy which was used in carving these historical relics. Henry Rawlinson, who was a subaltern in the British Army, copied the trilingual inscriptions in 1833-1834 and eventually began the process of decoding the inscriptions. Later, in 1948 Dr. G. Cameron in University of Chicago could correct some of Rawlinson's errors.
Altogether, twelve hundred lines exist in the inscriptions which tell the story of the battles Darius had to wage in 521-520 BC against the governors who were trying to dismantle the Empire founded by Cyrus the Great. The crucial battle took place on this site.
A bas-relief portrays the king's victory, the scene showing him with his main enemy at his feet and nine rebel governors enchained. It is some 50 meters above ground level and is hardly visible without the use of binoculars.
The tablet of Darius the Great is high up on the side of the cliff over the village of Bisotun which stands to a large pool. There is a staircase up to a platform under the tablet from which a shallow recess containing an inscription in Greek and a rather worn mid-second century BC sculpture of Hercules on the back of a lion can be seen. These sculptures, inscriptions and tablets of considerable dimensions contain the figure of Darius in a full-length position with attractive features, while Ahura Mazda, the symbolic celestial figure can be seen hovering above his head. In this relief, Darius has stretched his right hand toward this deity and with his left foot, he is trampling upon the rebel Gaumata (pretender) lying prostrate at his feet. Two persons are standing behind Darius, while nine governors from different nations are seen before him with their hands tied behind their backs and a cord running around their necks.
The inscriptions in this ancient site are also known as the longer and the shorter. The longer ones consist of Ahura Mazda's praise and adoration, the genealogy of Darius the Great, and an account of the events of his reign, his views, beliefs, recommendations, and comments. The shorter inscriptions deal with Darius' lineage and a number of events taken place during his reign.
For example, the carving of the Achaemenid sovereign, Darius II, wearing a garment with folds at the waist can be seen carved on the mountain. One of the two prisoners (governors) standing behind the king, bears the royal bow and arrow, while the other is holding the King's spear. The figure of Ahura Mazda is seen above the heads of the prisoners, with a winged sun-disc (which is the symbol of eternity) encircling him. In the inscriptions, Darius gives the names of his ancestors and says: "Eight of my family members were kings before me. I am the ninth. We inherit kingship on both sides."
After the fall of the Persian Empire and its successors and the fall of cuneiform writing into disuse, the nature of the inscription was forgotten and fanciful origins became the norm. For centuries, instead of being attributed to Darius, it was believed to be from the reign of Khosrow II of Persia (the Sassanid king).
A legend arose that it had been created by Farhad, a lover of Khosrow's wife, Shirin. Farhad, who was exiled for his transgression, was asked to carve the mountain to find water and if he succeeds, he would have given permission to marry Shirin. After many years and removal of half the mountain, he finds water but was informed wrongly by Khosrow Parviz that Shirin had died. He goes mad and throws himself from the cliff. Due to this legend, Bisotun has a special place as a symbol of love and faith in Persian literature.
Bisotun was registered on UNESCO's List of World Heritage Sites in 2006.
Tekieh Mo�aven ol-Molk
The Takieh Mo�aven ol-Molk is Iran's finest Hoss
einieh, a distinctively Shiite shrine where plays are acted out during the Islamic month of Moharram to commemorate the martyrdom in 680 of Imam Hossein at Karbala. Enter downstairs, through a courtyard and a domed central chamber decorated with grisly scenes from the Karbala battle.
The shrine remains very much active, with pilgrims kissing the doors and being genuinely moved by the footprint of Ali (Hussein's father) on the wall of the second courtyard. This is set amid tiles depicting a wild gamut of images, from Quranic scenes to pre-Islamic motifs including Shahnameh kings, European villages and local notables in 19th-century costumes.
The building to the right is now an ethnographic museum displaying regional costumes.
Kermanshah has a mild mountainous climate. In the fourth century, the city which has a great climate was selected as the second accommodation for royal Sassanid. In their era, great gardens were made and for many years they were resorts of Sassanid kings. In Islamic era, the city was repeatedly named a city with fine weather in which water is flowing and has many trees and fruits. A city where goods are cheap. Ibn-faqih who wrote Elbaldan in 290 Lunar calendars wrote about this city:
maximum sunny hours in this city reaches to 2,999 hours in June and July and the least sunlight is in January and February. Given to level of average rainfall and annual humidity, according to climate and ecological position of Kermanshah, mountain range, and plains are completely filled with forest and in some areas, farmlands are water and space forms. Average annual temperature is nearly 14 centigrade and annual rainfalls are 4568 millimeters.
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